Miscellaneous

These articles are of general interest or cover topics not included in other application note categories.

80 Years of Panel Meter Evolution reviews some of the significant changes in analog and digital meters since 1941.

80 Years of Instrumentation Innovation gives a brief look at how three common field test instruments have changed over the last 80 years: portable oscilloscopes, multimeters, and clamp meters.

Basic 4-20ma Current Loops examines the elements of a current loop and its advantages for sending and receiving control signals.

4-20ma Loop Instrumentation discusses 2-wire, 3-wire, and 4-wire transmitters, various types of receivers, and the power supply needed to operate the loop devices.

Differences Between LCD & LED Displays describes some of the performance differences between meters with digital displays that use liquid crystal vs light-emitting diode technology.

Instrumentation Switches Explained discusses how these specialty switches are used to change input signals to ammeters and voltmeters.

USB Interface Basics provides an overview of the Universal Serial Bus and how it is used with test & measurement instrumentation.