RJ45 connector for copper Ethernet

Ethernet for Measurement Applications

Ethernet was first standardized in 1983 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic. Originally specified for a maximum of 2.94Mbit/sec, it has been revised many times to support higher bit rates, a greater number of nodes, more operating configurations and longer distances. Today Ethernet is the dominant architecture for local area networks (LANs). (more...)

Substation Transformer

Transformer Loss of Life

Oil-filled transformers used in transmission and distribution systems are rugged units built for long life. They are designed to handle continuous operation at full load and can withstand short-term operation at significantly higher loads. (more...)

Linear Scale

Using the Table Function in a DPM

The table function is used to define the relationship between the input signal and the output reading in a digital panel meter (DPM). This allows the user to implement a complex output function or correct system errors. Here are some examples where a table increases the versatility or improves the performance of a DPM. (more...)

Ground Detection Diagram

Ground Detection Voltmeter 101

A ground detection voltmeter is used to monitor a floating battery bank for inadvertent grounding on either side. Historically, a center zero analog meter has been used for this application. The meter typically has a 250μA, 500μA, or 1mA DC movement, with a voltage scale of 100-0-100 for a 72V battery bank, (more...)

Sine Waves

Current Sensing for Distorted Waveforms

Many AC current sensors work well on sine wave signals but cannot accurately determine the magnitude of distorted waveforms. Variable speed drives, electronic ballasts, LED bulbs, power converters, uninterruptible power supplies, and light dimmers are common sources of distorted current waveforms. Monitoring current in these devices requires careful equipment selection. (more...)