sensor output

Which Sensor Output is Best?

Industrial sensors for pressure, flow, temperature, position and other process parameters typically include signal conditioning that generates a dc output. This output can be either a voltage or a current. Which output is best for a particular application depends on several factors. (more…)

Inductive Load

Relay Contact Protection

Many digital panel meters include electro-mechanical relay outputs to control external devices. Protecting relay contacts from excessive voltage and current is important to achieving the long operating life that digital instrumentation is designed to provide. (more…)


Meter Setpoints and Hysteresis

Many digital meters provide relay outputs to activate external alarms or controls. Two parameters, setpoint and hysteresis, are used to configure these outputs. The setpoint is a predetermined level, within the range of the meter, where a protective or control action is initiated. (more…)


Common Mistakes When Using a DMM

The digital multimeter is one of the most widely used test instruments. A handheld DMM typically has 3½ or 4½ digit resolution and at least 3, but sometimes more than 10 functions (DCV, ACV, Ω, DCA, ACA, Hz, duty cycle, capacitance, continuity, diode test, etc).

Meter Relays

What is a Meter Relay?

A meter relay is a meter with a switched output that can be used to control a process or activate an alarm. In its simplest form, an analog meter relay uses mechanical contacts or a microswitch to operate an external device when the analog meter pointer reaches the level of the set pointer. Today’s analog meter relay has solid-state circuitry and a relay in place of a mechanical switch. (more…)